Monday, December 28, 2009

2009 season review: Valentino Rossi


A ninth World Championship title for the Italian, his seventh in the premier class, along with a 100th career GP win.

Valentino Rossi was once again crowned MotoGP World Champion in 2009 as he took his seventh premier class title at the age of 30.

The Italian took second-placed finishes in the opening two rounds at Losail and Motegi before his first win of the season, which came at Jerez. Rising from fourth on the grid Rossi established an 11-point lead early on in the campaign, as he beat Dani Pedrosa over the line by a 2.7s margin.

A difficult race followed that maiden win of 2009 though as Rossi experienced a tough one in France, in which he swapped bike three times, crashed out and was given a ride through for speeding in pit lane as he finished in last place.

Third place in Italy got him back on track before back-to-back wins at Catalunya and Assen opened up a slender lead at the top of the standings. A magnificent battle at Catalunya with team mate Jorge Lorenzo saw Rossi win with an overtake on the final corner, while he claimed victory at Assen over the Spaniard with a more comfortable five-second margin to take his 100th career World Championship Grand Prix win.

A fourth win of the season in Germany followed, before fifth at Donington as Rossi fell with 11 laps remaining. Victories at Brno and Misano were punctuated by Rossi’s only DNF of the year at Indianapolis as he crashed on lap nine while battling with Lorenzo for the lead.

A fantastic response was forthcoming in San Marino however as Rossi took his sixth and final win of the campaign, again beating Lorenzo and stretching his lead at the top of the standings to 30 points with four rounds remaining in a dominant weekend.

Fourth in Portugal and second in Australia were Rossi’s next two results, before a third-placed finish in a wet race in Malaysia brought him the 2009 title with a race to spare.

Another signature celebration followed the confirmation of his ninth World crown at Sepang, and Rossi will head into 2010 looking to take his World title haul into double figures with his legendary status already well secured.

Source : motogp.com

Sunday, December 27, 2009

Tiger Wood, Professional Golfers of all time


Eldrick Tont Woods (born December 30, 1975), better known as Tiger Woods, is an American professional golfer whose achievements to date rank him among the most successful golfers of all time. Currently the World No. 1, he was the highest-paid professional athlete in 2008, having earned an estimated $110 million from winnings and endorsements.

Woods has won 14 professional major golf championships, the second highest of any male player, and 71 PGA Tour events, third all time. He has more career major wins and career PGA Tour wins than any other active golfer. He is the youngest player to achieve the career Grand Slam, and the youngest and fastest to win 50 tournaments on tour. Additionally, Woods is the second golfer to have achieved a career grand slam three times along with Jack Nicklaus. Woods has won 16 World Golf Championships and has won at least one event each of the 11 years they have been in existence.

Woods has held the number one position in the world rankings for the most consecutive weeks and for the greatest total number of weeks. He has been awarded PGA Player of the Year a record ten times, the Byron Nelson Award for lowest adjusted scoring average a record eight times, and has the record of leading the money list in nine different seasons. He has been named Associated Press Male Athlete of the Year a record-tying four times, and is the only person to be named Sports Illustrated's Sportsman of the Year more than once.

Since his record-breaking win at the 1997 Masters Tournament, golf's increased popularity is attributed to Woods' presence. He is credited for dramatically increasing prize money in golf, generating interest in new audiences as the first non-white person to win the Masters, and for drawing the largest TV audiences in golf history.He has been named "Athlete of the Decade" by the Associated Press in December 2009.

On December 11, 2009, Woods announced an indefinite leave from professional golf to focus on his marriage after his past infidelities came to light.

Source : Wikipedia

Fabio Cannavaro




Saturday, December 26, 2009

Famous Brazilian Soccer Players


Roberto





Ronaldinho




Ronaldo






Rivaldo




Kaka




Dida




Cafu

Friday, December 25, 2009

About Kempo


Kempo Karate is one of the oldest forms of martial arts. All martial arts have their origins in India. A man named Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk who traveled into China, and in return for the monks teachings and lodging, he taught them his fighting art Chuan Fa which is Chinese for Kempo, as well as the Buddhism principles. The monks were in a poor condition physically and mentally, due to the amount of time the monks spent in meditation without any physical exercise. By the time Bodhidharma left the temple, the Monks were performing masterful feats of martial skill, and the temple of Shaolin was never the same. From that point on the Monks were no longer the subject of abuse or ridicule. They had gained respect in their community and on an international level even today. Thus Kempo's origins are in China from the monks of the Shaolin. The English definition of Kempo is fist law.

In 1921, at the age of five, James Mitose went to Kyushu from his home in Hawaii, to study with his uncle, a Kempo master named Choki Motobu. For fifteen years, he studied this art, which was a direct descendent of the original Chinese Chuan Fa. Mitose returned to Hawaii in 1936 to train others. One of his black belts was William K.S. Chow. In 1949, Chow had attracted a following of students to his own teaching style and opened a Dojo of his own at a YMCA. To make his art more distinctive from Mitose's Kempo, he named his style Kenpo. Since then there have been numerous modifications of the original teachings. It is our goal to teach and inform others of the wonderful physical and mental aspects of Kempo, and Kempo training.

Source : kempo.org

Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Alessandro Del Piero, Italian World Cup-winning footballer who plays for Serie A club Juventus


Michael James Owen a striker for Manchester United




Michael James Owen (born 14 December 1979 in Chester) is an English professional footballer who plays as a striker for Manchester United. The son of former footballer Terry Owen, Owen began his senior career at Liverpool in 1996. He progressed through the Liverpool youth team and scored on his debut in May 1997. In his first full season in the Premier League he finished as joint top scorer. He repeated the feat the following year and was Liverpool's top goal scorer from 1997–2004, in spite of a recurring hamstring injury. His first major club honours came in 2001 when Liverpool won a cup treble of the UEFA Cup, FA Cup and Football League Cup, and Owen was the recipient of the Ballon d'Or that year. He went on to score 118 goals in 216 appearances in the English Premier League for Liverpool.

Source Wikipedia

Pele, The Legendary Brazilian Soccer Player



Pelé is the first soccer player to achieve massive international acclaim. His name is regularly mentioned today, more than a quarter century after his retirement.
Apart from his popularity, Pelé's life story is the ultimate soccer dream. He began as a poor boy from the slums in Tres Coracoes, Brazil but earned fame and fortune through his talent on the pitch. Pelé's father, Dondinho, was very influential in his son's success. Dondinho was a former footballer and made sure to pass over his knowlege to young Pelé. This paid off and by the age of 15, Pelé was signed by Santos. His international debut followed just a year after on the 7th of July 1957 against Argentina at the legendary Maracanã stadium. Merely at the age of 17, Pelé was recruited to Brazil's World Cup squad. At World Cup 1958 in Sweden, he first gained attention after his goal against Wales which clinched Brazil to the next round. Pelé proved that he wasn't a fluke in the following match, scoring three goals on France. By the tournament's final, Brazilian coach Vicente Feola was confident in the talented 17-year old. His two goals at the 1958 World Cup final ascertained his status as a soccer superstar.
Thanks to Pelé's sensational scoring, his club Santos earned the Intercontinental Cup in 1962 and 1963.


At the 1962 World Cup in Chile, Pelé missed out most of the tournament due to an injury. Brazil still managed to win the trophy. At World Cup 1966, Pele was once again was forced to permanently leave the pitch after being ferociously tackled.
After England 1966, many began to doubt the Brazilian soccer player and his superstar status. He made a triumphant return at Mexico 1970 by dazzling audiences worldwide. This was the first World Cup broadcast in color and was shown across an unprecedented number of countries. In front of over 100,000 spectators at Azteca Stadium and millions of TV viewers, Pelé scored the first goal of the 1970 World Cup final. That opened the floodgates to Brazil's crushing 4-1 victory and reclaimed Pele as the "King of Soccer".
Later in the 1970's, Pelé was signed by the New York Cosmos in the North American Soccer League. He eventually retired as the only player with over 1000 goals in professional football. Pele was the first commercial superstar of non-commercial soccer.

Source : expertfootball.com

Friday, December 18, 2009

BECKHAM 'SHOULD GO TO WORLD CUP'



AC Milan's Clarence Seedorf believes David Beckham deserves to be in England's squad for the 2010 World Cup.

Fellow midfielder Beckham, 34, is set to return to Seedorf's club on loan from Los Angeles Galaxy in January to boost his chances of making the finals.

Seedorf told BBC Sport: "There should not be any discussion for anybody in England about taking David to what will most probably be his last World Cup.

"His will to perform and still play for the national team is very big."

Beckham did not feature in England's recent 1-0 defeat in Ukraine but made an appearance as a substitute in the 3-0 win over Belarus.

He turns 35 in May 2010 - a month before the start of the World Cup finals in South Africa.

Asked if Beckham was good enough and fit enough to play in the World Cup at that age, Seedorf said: "Of course he is.

"He showed that here with Milan and he will definitely show it again once he's back, there is no doubt about that."

England manager Fabio Capello has made it clear that Beckham needs to be playing in Europe to stand a chance of securing a place in the World Cup squad.

The former Manchester United and Real Madrid player, who has played in three World Cups, revealed last week that a return to AC Milan is "95% done".

Beckham's first stint at the San Siro began in the January transfer window and helped him get back into the England reckoning.

He was initially only scheduled to spend three months with the Italian outfit during the Major League Soccer off-season but extended his time until the end of the Serie A campaign.

He returned to LA Galaxy during the summer and will feature for them in the upcoming MLS play-offs before his anticipated return to Milan.

The Serie A side have made an unconvincing start to their season after the departures of manager Carlo Ancelotti, who is now at Chelsea, and playmaker Kaka, who joined Real Madrid in June.

However, Seedorf said the expected return of Beckham would aid the team.

Capello reveals Beckham ultimatum

"He was already a great help last year," stated the 33-year-old former Dutch international, who is the only player to win the Champions League with three different clubs - Ajax, Real Madrid and Milan.

"I'm very happy that he will be back again as we also became friends.

"We all know Beckham. The most important thing is that he is going to bring a lot of professionalism and personality with his game.

"His specific qualities are well known but what we need in a team of AC Milan players are those who are not afraid to play the big games and not afraid to take responsibility - and David is such a player."

Source : beckham-magazine.com

Cristiano Ronaldo Biography




Cristiano Ronaldo is a midfielder for Portugal and Manchester United in the English Premier League. He was crowned the World’s Best footballer in 2008 by FIFA, FIFpro (the players), and France Football with their Ballon D’or. His quick feet and trickery on the ball make him one of the most entertaining players to watch – with all manner of stepovers, back-heels and clever flicks an integral part of his game. Whilst Portugal have yet to win big trophies, with Manchester United he has won the Premier League twice, and the 2008 Champions League. Childhood Cristiano Ronaldo was born on 5th February 1985 in Funchal, Madeira – one of Portugal’s islands off the coast of Africa. Cristiano had the typical upbringing on what was a poor island – playing football became one of his only pleasures, and he could always be found with a ball at his feet – even when he was having his dinner!

His games on the streets taught him to be clever with the ball, and he always liked showing his friends a new trick, and using it against them in their marathon three-hour matches. Ronaldo’s skills did not go unnoticed, and at the age of 14, he was invited to the Portugal mainland to play and live in Lisbon.

Ronaldo was desperately homesick, and was teased because he spoke with a different accent. Cristiano continued to stay strong, helped by his family who willed him to keep going in spite of all the difficulties.

Ronaldo blossomed into a great talent – he became the first player to rise from the U16 team to the first-team in just one season – and made his debut in September 2002, aged just 17. His performances as an attacking midfielder for both Sporting Lisbon and Portugal’s U-17 team ensured he was being watched by many of the best clubs in Europe.

Cristiano Ronaldo had come to the attention of Sir Alex Ferguson long before Manchester United played Sporting Lisbon in a pre-season friendly, but legend has it that Sir Alex saw young Ronny for himself for the first time and immediately decided that he had to sign this youngster with immense confidence and skill. The Man United defenders also told Sir Alex to sign him on the plane home from the match!

Ronaldo arrived at Old Trafford in August 2003, just months after Manchester United had lost out on Ronaldinho, and sold David Beckham. Cristiano requested the number 28 shirt (as he had worn this number at Sporting), but Sir Alex insisted he took the number 7 – David Beckham, Eric Cantona and George Best’s old number.

Cristiano burst on to the scene in United first match of the season against Bolton Wanderers. Thrown on as a substitute with half an hour to play, Ronaldo had such pace and control of the ball, as well as the unpredictability that his tricks brought, that Bolton couldn’t get the ball off him! Ronaldo was used sparingly at first, as United won the FA Cup, but struggled in the league.

Since that first season, Cristiano Ronaldo has gone from strength to strength – notching in goal after goal, becoming a favourite of the fans, and helping United to win back-to-back Premier League titles. It was his incredible form in the 07/08 season - scoring 42 goals as a winger is no mean feat - that led to Manchester United becoming Champions of Europe. Ronaldo was both hero and villain in the Final against Chelsea – scoring in normal time and then missing his penalty in the shootout to leave supporters on a knife-edge.

Real Madrid continue to be linked with Ronaldo, with the Spanish club remorselessly telling the Press that they have signed agreements with him that means he’ll play in the Bernabeu next year. Ronaldo insists he is happy at United, and is challenging on all fronts as United go for an unprecedented quadruple!

Source : mycristianoronaldo.com

Colin Bell Biography


Colin Bell MBE (26 February 1946), is a former English football player who was born in Hesleden, County Durham, England. Nicknamed "The King of the Kippax" (after Manchester City's Kippax Street terraced stand renowned for its singing), and Nijinsky after the famous racehorse (due to his renowned stamina), Bell is widely regarded as Manchester City's greatest ever player. He was part of the famous trio of the late 1960s and early 1970s alongside Francis Lee and Mike Summerbee.

He began his career at Bury captaining the team at a young age. In 1966 he moved to Manchester City and helped the team earn promotion to the First Division that same year. When trying to sign him for Manchester City, Assistant Manager Malcolm Allison misled other clubs interested in Bell by claiming the player "can't head it, can't pass it, he's hopeless". Allison's stratagem succeeded as Bell signed for City. In 1968 he helped City win their second League Championship. In the same year Bell also won his first England cap against Sweden, where he was instrumental in a 3-1 victory - the last time England defeated Sweden. In 1969 Manchester City won the FA Cup with a 1-0 victory over Leicester City thanks to a goal by Neil Young. That same year Bell distinguished himself in the national team, scoring England's only goal in a 1-0 victory over The Netherlands and also scoring against Brazil. In 1970, Manchester City and Bell won two trophies, the League Cup and the European Cup Winners' Cup.

Source : Wikipedia

Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Bobby Moore Biography


Birth: Apr. 12, 1941
Death: Feb. 24, 1993

Football (Soccer) Player. Born Robert Frederick Chelsea Moore, he was one of the finest football (soccer) players of all time. He played for West Ham United, Fulham, San Antonio Thunder (summer 1976), and Seattle Sounders (summer 1978). He won both the F.A. Cup and European Cup Winners Cup with West Ham. The crowning moment of his career came in 1966, when he captained England's successful World Cup Winning squad. (bio by: Kieran Smith)

Source : findagrave.com

Bobby Charlton a former English football player


Sir Robert "Bobby" Charlton (born October 11, 1937) is a former English football player. He survived the Munich Air Disaster. He scored 49 international goals for England, winning 106 caps and a World Cup winners medal in 1966. He also won the FA Cup (1963), European Cup (1968) and three league titles (1957, 1965, 1967) with Manchester United F.C., playing 752 games and scoring 247 goals for United.

After leaving United in 1973 he was player-manager for one season for Preston North End and after another short and unsuccessful spell in football management he joined the board at Old Trafford. He was appointed an OBE in 1969 and a CBE in 1974, and was awarded a knighthood in 1994.

He had a haircut that some considered very humorous (bald on top, with the side bits grown long and combed over the top). His brother Jack Charlton was also a football player and was a defender at Leeds United F.C..

Source : famouspeople.co.uk

Alan Shearer Biography


Alan Shearer, OBE (born August 13, 1970) is a successful English footballer. He was born in Newcastle and currently plays for Newcastle United. He joined that club in July 1996 for a then record fee of £15m. He made his club debut on August 17th of that year.

Shearer's previous clubs were Southampton (1988-1992) and Blackburn (1992-1996). He played 63 times for the England team and scored 30 goals. His debut for the national side was on 19th February 1992 versus France at Wembley. He also scored 13 goals in only 11 games for the England Under 21 team.

Shearer's honours include League Championship Winner (Blackburn) 1994/95, PFA Player of the Year 1994/95 & 1996/97, Football Writers Player of the Year 1994/95, Premiership Golden Boot Winner 1994/95 (34), 1995/96 (31) & 1996/97 (25), Awarded Barclaycard Merit Award on 20 April 2002 for reaching the 200 Premiership goal landmark.
One of the most famous players in the game today, Alan was also the world's most expensive footballer at the time of his £15m move from Blackburn to Newcastle in the summer of 1996. He joined Blackburn from Southampton for a then British record £3.6m fee in 1992 and won a championship medal three years later.

Geordie Alan makes no secret of his love for Newcastle United and the partnership is a marriage made in heaven, but one which before the start of this season had borne no trophies, though a few near misses. Many believed Kevin Keegan's addition of Shearer to a squad which had just missed out on the 1995-96 Championship would seal the title, but another second place finish in 1996-97 denied United that honour, and a serious ankle injury then sidelined Alan for half of the 1997-98 campaign. In this season he was controversially cleared by the FA when he kicked Leicester City's Neil Lennon in the head.

However, his regular goal output has continued and a total of 30 in season 1999/2000 underlined his enduring ability in the penalty area. The scorer of a hat-trick on his debut for Southampton against Arsenal as a 17-year-old in 1988, Alan went on to become the first man to score 30 Premier League goals in three successive seasons.

Shearer was English PFA Player of the Year in 1995 and 1997. He scored 30 goals in 63 games for the England side before his retirement from international football at the end of Euro 2000.

During 2000/01 Alan's season was disrupted by injury which restricted him to only 23 appearances. He underwent two knee operations to clear up his tendinitis problem, one in December and one in May in the USA. He received a terrific and emotional welcome when he returned to first team action as a sub against Sunderland on 26 August before hitting two goals against Middlesbrough at the Riverside Stadium on his first start of the season on 8 September.

Shearer was appointed an OBE for services to Association Football in the Queen's Birthday Honours List in June 2001, an honour to go with the Freedom of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne that was bestowed upon him in March.

His brace against Ipswich Town in the Worthington Cup on 27 November took his United goals tally to 100. The goal against Arsenal on 18/12/01 was his first at Highbury and it also broke United's London jinx. Shearer hit his 200th Premiership goal against Charlton at St. James' Park on 20 April 2002. He was voted North-East Player of Year for 2001/02 and also scored North-East Goal of the Season 2001/02 (versus Aston Villa).

Shearer has announced that the 2004/05 season will be his last as a player. He is currently working on his UEFA coaching qualifications, which are required to manage a team in European competitions.

Source : famouspeople.co.uk

Famous Football Players

Famous Football Players - Listed below are your favourite famous football players, past and present, with links to each persons biography. Biographical information includes, date of birth, profiles, personal history and other facts about them and their achievements.
Alan Shearer
Bobby Charlton
Bobby Moore
Colin Bell
Ronaldo
David Beckham
Diego Maradona
George Best
Henrik Larsson
Michael Owen
Pele

Source :famouspeople.co.uk

How Beach Volleyball growth


Beach volleyball was probably first played in Hawaii in 1915, when the Outrigger Beach and Canoe Club set up a court on Waikiki Beach but most people believe that it begun in Santa Monica, California, in the 1920s, about 25 years after the indoor version of the game was invented on the other side of the USA in Massachusetts.



The sport began as a form of family fun at the beach and its wide appeal and low-cost meant it soon spread around the world. By the 1930s it was being played in the most strange places: Riga, Sofia and Prague, the capital cities of Latvia, Bulgaria and the then Czechoslovakia.

The sport was given a boost during the Great Depression. Cash strapped Americans in their 100's flocked to the beaches to play in what was virtually a no-cost pastime and a free source of entertainment. By the 1950s, competitions were being held in California. Included on the program were beauty contests and other forms of entertainment. As the sport continued to grow it wasn’t long before sponsors came forward to take advantage of beach volleyball's popularity and by the 1970s a fully fledged pro beach volleyball tour was organized. In 1986 International Volleyball Federation recognized the sport. Since then, beach volleyball’s World Tour has spread from the United States into Asia and Europe.

In 1999 it featured Twelve open events for men and 6 for women with total prize money of $US3.66 million. The 1999 tour attracted more than 460,000 spectators.

Beach volleyball was a demonstration sport at the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, and shortly afterward the International Olympic Committee announced that the sport would be included in the 1996 Games in Atlanta.

rules and equipment


* Beach Volleyball is played on a court, which is a little smaller than an indoor court and measure’s 16 x 8 metres which is divided into 2 equal halves by a net.
* Two sidelines and two end lines define the playing court. There is NO centre line.
* As in tennis, the boundary lines are counted as part of the court, in other words on the line is in.
* The top of the net is set at the heights of 2.43 metres for men and 2.24 metres for women.
* Antennae attached to the net and set directly above the sideline mark the area which, the ball must pass between when hit over the net.
* The ball is made of leather with a bladder inside, and has a circumference of between 65cm and 67cm and weighs 260-280 grams.

* A Beach Volleyball team consists of 2 players NO substitutions can be made. (However, in social competitions 2–6 players may participate).
* Players on each team aim to hit the ball over the net with their hands, although it is permissible for any part of the body to be used to hit the ball.
* Unlike indoor volleyball, the players do not have fixed positions and can play from any position on the court.
* Rally Point scoring is used. The winner of each rally, irrespective of which team served, scores a point.
* Serves can be made from anywhere behind the end line and may be struck under or over arm with any part of the hand, fist or arm.
* Service order must be maintained throughout the set.
* A serve cannot touch a player from the same team and players cannot obscure the opposition's view of a serve.
* The server continues to serve until the serving team loses a point.
* A team may hit the ball 3 times to return it, but no player can hit the ball twice in a row including if it hits 1 part of their body and then rebounds to another part.
* A team scores a point if it hits the ball and it lands in the opposition's half of the court.
* Rallies can be lost by hitting the ball out of play or into the net, or if a player touches the net with any part of his or her body while playing the ball.
* Shots may be blocked before they cross the net, as long as the blocker does not touch the net.
* The ball can be directed anywhere into the opponent's court.
* The ball can be played off the net during a rally.
* Because weather affects play, teams swap ends every 7 points during the first two sets and every 5 points during the 3rd set.
* Each match is played over the best of 3 sets. To win a set, a team must have a 2-point break over the opposition. The match continues indefinitely until this is the case. The first 2 sets are played to twenty one points while the 3rd, if required, is played to fifteen points.
* Each team is allowed one thirty second time-out per set.
* There is a technical time out when the score adds to twenty one in the first two sets.
* No coaching is allowed during the match.

Source : athleticscholarships.net

Tuesday, December 15, 2009

Preparing for Rock / Ice Climbing Trip

Training/Practice Exercises

In general rock climbing takes loads of energy. Every climber needs strong stamina, incredible physical strength, and enormous will power. It is not an easy activity by any means and many give up after the first attempt. Many lack the strength to even get more than few feet off the ground. Apart from increasing your muscle mass and just getting in better overall shape there are numerous things you can do to train and prepare for a big climb.

The most logical option is to take a climbing class of some sort. Brief lessons at climbing walls in your local gym or recreation center can give you the basics of climbing in a short period of time. The weather is ideal and you rarely need to worry about natural elements. It's just straightforward climbing with the safest possible equipment and “rock face.” Many Universities offer reasonably priced elective classes that include a few introductory lectures on climbing, a trip to a climbing wall, and even a short climb on a real rock face.

Climbing schools are the expert's choice for preparation. Before ascending the world's highest mountains, a training session that teaches you about safety, altitude, health, technical skills, and fitness in regards to climbing saves lives. Knowing your equipment and how to use it is one of the most important aspects of climbing and a class or lecture can help you learn quickly and efficiently. They will teach you about commonly used knots, which are one of the first and most elemental things to learn in rock climbing. Although every climber has his/her own favorites such as the overhand knot, the figure 8, the water knot, the double fisherman's knot, and others.

If climbing in high altitudes it is wise to spend a day or two just doing easy walking to acclimatize. Otherwise a day into your trip you might start feeling the effects of altitude sickness - nausea, headaches, and vomiting - which can abruptly cut your climb short.
Gear Requirements/Packing lists

For climbing there is a large assortment of other gear that is necessary and it varies form climb to climb depending on conditions: a sturdy backpack where you can fit all your food and gear as well as some group supplies, a helmet, harness, gloves, climbing shoes, and rope. Sunglasses, or glacier glasses, are incredibly important as well to ward off the intense rays of the sun that reflect off of the snow or ice. Speak with your tour operator beforehand to determine exactly what you will need to bring. Again, every climb is different and you should always consult with an expert or tour operator to determine what you need to bring for every climb.

For ice climbing you need a bit more equipment than regular rock climbing. Apart from Ropes, helmets, and harnesses you will need a decent hiking or mountaineering boot so you can dig in to the ice to retain balance with every step. You will need an ice axe to cut steps and notches into the ice of which you will need to climb. You will need crampons, which are metal boot attachments with spikes coming out of them, so you can walk on the ice and dig into it. You will need ice screws, which are like a rock climbers bolt, that allow you to tie to.

Source : iexplore.com

Sports Rafting is full of challenges


Rafting on the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA





Rafting in Ljusselforsen, Krokugforsen, Pite river, Lappland Sweden.





Rafting in Brazil




Rafting or whitewater rafting is a challenging recreational activity using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on whitewater or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s.
Whitewater rafts
The modern raft is an inflatable boat, consisting of very durable, multi-layered rubberized or vinyl fabrics with several independent air chambers. The length varies between 3.5 m (11 ft) and 6 m (20 ft), the width between 1.8 m (6 ft) and 2.5 m (8 ft). The exception to this size rule is usually the packraft, which is designed as a portable single-person raft and may be as small as 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) long and weigh as little as 4 pounds (1.8 kg).

Rafts come in a few different forms. In Europe, the most common is the symmetrical raft steered with a paddle at the stern. Other types are the asymmetrical, rudder-controlled raft and the symmetrical raft with central helm (oars). Rafts are usually propelled with ordinary paddles and typically hold 4 to 12 persons. In Russia, rafts are often hand made and are often a catamaran style with two inflatable tubes attached to a frame. Pairs of paddlers navigate on these rafts. Catamaran style rafts have become popular in the western United States as well, but are typically rowed instead of paddled.

Classes of whitewater
Grade 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. (Skill Level: Very Basic)
Grade 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering.(Skill Level: Basic Paddling Skill)
Grade 3: Whitewater, small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering.(Skill Level: Experienced paddling skills)
Grade 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed. (Skill Level: Whitewater Experience)
Grade 5: Whitewater, large waves, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering (Skill Level: Advanced Whitewater Experience)
Grade 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous as to be effectively unnavigable on a reliably safe basis. Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of almost all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a dramatically increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes. (Skill Level: Successful completion of a Class 6 rapid without serious injury or death is widely considered to be a matter of great luck or extreme skill)

Source : Wikipedia

Wednesday, December 9, 2009

History of Kickboxing


Kickboxing started in the US during the 1970's when American karate practitioners became frustrated with strict controls on martial arts competitions that didn't allow full contact kicks and punches. Many questions were raised when the sport began about the high risk of injury. As a result, safety rules were improved and protective clothing was added. As this is a relatively new sport there are no long-term traditions. The sport has undergone changes and been refined during the last two decades. Competitors use sparring, kicks, punches, kick blocks, shadow boxing, and wood breaking that is learned and applied under professional instruction.

Source : kickboxing.com

About Capoiera


Capoeira history begins with the first black slaves brought from Africa to work on sugar cane plantations and tobacco in Brazil. These slaves came from different regions and cultures of Africa, most of the Bantu tribe of Africa and the West. Realizes their new condition of forced labor to work forever, some slaves began to flee and even to rebel. Run by the plantation slaves fled to the mountains, where they formed communities of blacks. Here, the mixture of different African cultures formed the basis capoeira. This early period is however unclear and mainly based on assumptions, the first written records of the capoeira appear until around 1770, in police annals.
The African communities in the mountains started to grow, blacks increasingly going more often fromthe mountains to exchange products and especially to attack plantations and other slave issue.
Taking advantage of the Dutch attack on Brazil, which then (1630) was a Portuguese colony, slaves, blacks in the mountains revolted and fled from the plantations.
The Dutch won the war and realizes that important loss was fleeing slaves on plantations, have organized several expeditions to capture blacks in the mountains. Although in these expeditions were sent experienced soldiers , they encountered unexpected resistance from the Africans, who led the guerrilla war, characterized by rapid and unexpected attacks that caused casualties to the Dutch. Capoeira was the key element in these attacks and became the main weapon and symbol of freedom for blacks.
Blacks caught in these expeditions were taken back to the plantations. Herethey learned capoeira tothe other slaves. Sunday – the rest day, was the time when slaves had time to practice capoeira. On the plantation practice of capoeira was changed. They added dance, music and rituals to hide the fact that slaves were practicing a deadly martial art.
These workouts have the slaves ready for riots that followed, in Twenty years took place eleven major uprisings that culminated in the abolition of slavery in 1888.
Many blacks freed by not having to work on plantations, were held on criminal gangs, and the luckiest of them, because of the capoeira knowledge, were employed as bodyguards of politicians and businessmen. Fearing the threat to political stability and social order it represented capoeira, the government banned the practice, any practitioner of capoeira is shown expatriate. After a period of persecution against practitioners of capoeira, public perception of it changed after the war with Paraguay, fall capoeira practitioners were noted on the front, becoming national heroes.
Until the abolition of alcohol prohibition on capoeira in 1920, continued its practice disguised as a “folk dance. Through the efforts of practitioners, the tradition was kept alive, and capoeira was more readily accepted in the form of folk art.
In 1937, Mestre Bimba, one of the most important masters of capoeira, received the invitation from the president to make a demostratie in the capital. The demonstration was very appreciated and when he returned home, with the permission of the governor, opened the first school of capoeira in Brazil. This was the first step in the evolution of modern capoeira. Afew years later was declared a national sport in Brazil.
Today, capoeira has spread all over the world, earning increasingly more practical through its beauty and uniqueness. In Brazil it is considered part of the culture, as practiced in schools, universities, clubs and military academies.

Source : martialartsdaily.com

How to get started Fishing


If you've ever wanted to have a go at fishing but aren't quite sure how to get started, take a look at Waterscape.com's fishing guide for beginners...

Setting up your equipment:

Put your rod together, ensuring that the line guides (rings) are aligned. Attach the reel to your rod at the top of the handle, ensuring that the reel spool lines up with the rod's first line guide. Open the bale-arm of the reel and thread the line through all the line guides.

To attach the float, thread the line through the small eye at the base of the float.

Now, you have to add the shot to cock the float, ie make the float sit at the right level in the water. The float you select will have a guide printed on it, telling you how much split shot is needed. An important rule when float fishing is that the bulk of the split shot, around 90%, is placed at the base of the float. The rest of the shot should be smaller in size and spread equally down the line.

Next take a size 18 ready-tied hook to nylon from the packet and tie it to the end of the line.

Note: If fishing with a small pole you only need to connect the sections together up to the required length you wish to fish, then attach a length of line and a float as described above or attach a ready tied pole rig.

Next, you need to plumb the depth of the water you are fishing, ie find out how deep it is. Attach the plummet to the hook and let it hang below the float. Swing the plummet into the anticipated fishing area using a gentle under arm cast. The float will either sink or lie flat on the water depending on whether it is set too shallow or too deep. Bring the rig back in and adjust accordingly until the exact depth is found by sliding the float up or down the line until just the painted tip is showing above the water surface. Remember you want your hook to lie either on the bottom or just slightly above the bottom.

The float rig is now set up; remove the plummet and you’re ready to fish. Now set up the rest of your tackle so it is close at hand. You need to fish from a sitting position so get yourself comfortable on your chair or box and insert your rod rest in front of you so when you place the rod on it with butt of the rod on your knee the rod tip is just touching the water. Make sure your landing net is set up and your bait and catapult are at hand.

Bait

There are many different types of bait out on the market nowadays, but the most commonly known, and the bait which is eaten by nearly all fresh water species of fish is the maggot.

Starting your session:

When you begin your session it is recommended that you start off by feeding six to ten maggots at a time - this means throwing six to ten maggots into the water so that the fish get used to seeing the bait.. Keep feeding six to ten maggots every couple of minutes, even if you are not getting any bites. The key to successful loose feeding is to keep the bait trickling in. Feed little and often.

Attach one or two maggots to your hook, cast into your chosen swim and get ready to strike when your float is pulled by a fish eating your bait.

Source : waterscape.com

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

History of Tai Chi


Tai Chi has been practiced in China for centuries as a martial art, as exercise, and as a means of improving the flow of internal energy within the body. Because of Tai Chi's emphasis on correct form and feeling each movement, it is practiced very slowly and gently. Completely non-impact, yet involving the entire body, Tai Chi promotes strength, stamina, and flexibility, while tempering the joints of practitioners. Because the whole body moves as one, Tai Chi cultivates the link between mind and body, enhancing balance and coordination. Practitioners develop confident ease of movement.

The Taoists felt that stagnation was the cause of disease and aging. Nature moves unceasingly, and movement prevents stagnation.

Tai Chi was developed as a martial art/movement and breathing system that exersized all the joints and major muscle groups while circulating the chi, the internal energy. It is this circulation of the chi that prevents or mitigates disease and debility.

Tai Chi is performed slowly, evenly, and thoughtfully, with the emphasis on continuity of movement without break or pause. The Chinese use the metaphor of pulling silk from a cocoon: pull steadily, and the strand unravels; pull too fast or too slow, and it breaks.

Throughout the form, the body remains soft and relaxed, as if suspended from the top of the head and the joints like a puppet. The mind is centered on each movement, assessing the alignment and correctness of the form, focusing on feeling the flow from substantial to insubstantial in each movement, fending off distractions. Breathing is through the nose, slow and even, inhaling during contractions, exhaling during expansions of the form.

In Tai Chi you’re always moving, but always under complete control. There’s no overextension, no wasted effort. The whole body moves as one, with the body parts balanced in circular movement. Always moving, always rotating, always transforming into the opposite--the leg that bears the weight becomes "hollow" (weightless), the hand that was above circles below, while the other hand circles up to take its place. It’s not just hand, arm, and leg motions: the movement is controlled by the waist, and the hand, arm, and leg motions lead or follow the turning of the body. The weight shifts continuously, evenly and under complete control throughout the form, coming to rest briefly but completely on one leg or the other as the next element of the form unfolds.

As a martial art, Tai Chi uses the theory of "four ounces of strength against a ton of force" to repel the opponent without the need of force against force. Tai Chi uses the opponent’s own energy against him, while the Tai Chi practitioner exerts little or no force controlling the opponent. Where the opponent attacks, you become "insubstantial"; where the opponent is weak you attack.

History of Tai Chi

The term Tai Chi has been in the Chinese language for a very long time. It is used in philosophy, religion, literature, art, medicine and even astronomy. Now when we think of Tai Chi, we relate it to Tai Chi the martial art.
A great deal of effort was spent on finding the origin of this ancient Chinese martial art. The problem with researching the history of Tai Chi is the lack of precise written records and the fact that CNN wasn't in China then! Many books talked about Tai Chi being invented by a Taoist priest named Chang San Feng and just as many books believed that Tai Chi was invented by one of the martial art masters from the Chen village in the mid 1600's.
It is not the purpose of this web page to prove nor dispute the aforementioned theories, but to put them forth for your own analysis. For what it is worth, my belief is that Tai Chi as a martial art has been around for much longer than 300 years and cannot be attributed to one individual. Through the cumulation of many years of hard work by the masses, Tai Chi had evolved.

Source : taichiacademy.com

Badminton History


The history of the development of modern badminton is a very long and complex one. Below is a brief account of the history of the game.

Origins of the Game

The sport of badminton has its origins in ancient civilisations in Europe and Asia. The ancient game known as battledore (bat or paddle) and shuttlecock probably originated more than 2000 years ago.

In the 1600s Battledore and Shuttlecock was an upper class pastime in England and many European countries. Battledore and Shuttlecock was simply two people hitting a shuttlecock backwards and forwards with a simple bat as many times as they could without allowing it to hit the ground.

Contemporary Badminton

A contemporary form of badminton - a game called ‘Poon’, was played in India in the 1800s where a net was introduced and players hit the shuttlecock across the net. British officers in the mid 1800’s took this game back to England and it was introduced as a game for the guests of the Duke of Beaufort at his stately home ‘Badminton’ in Gloucestershire, England where it became popular.

In March 1898, the first Open Tournament was held at Guildford the first 'All England' Championships were held the following year. Denmark, the USA and Canada became ardent followers of the game during the 1930s.

IBF Established in 1934

Then in 1934, the International Badminton Federation was formed, with the initial members including England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland, Denmark, Holland, Canada, New Zealand and France, with India joining as an affiliate in 1936.

The first major IBF tournament was the Thomas Cup (world men's team championships) in 1948. Since then, the number of world events has increased with the addition of the Uber Cup (women’s team), World Championships (individual events), Sudirman Cup (mixed team), World Junior Championships and the World Grand Prix Finals.

Commonwealth Games Sport - 1966

Badminton was introduced as a Commonwealth Games program sport in Kingston Jamaica in 1966 and has been part of every Commonwealth Games program since then. Initially all five disciplines were included – singles (men, women), doubles (men, women) and mixed doubles with the Teams Event included in the program in later Commonwealth Games.

Olympic Games Sport - 1992

Badminton is a relatively new Olympic Games sport. After being a demonstration sport in Munich in 1972, badminton became an Olympic sport in Barcelona in 1992 with the singles and doubles disciplines introduced for the first time in the Olympic Games. In Atlanta in 1996, a mixed doubles event was included and this is the only mixed doubles event in all of the Olympic sports.

Only five countries have won the gold medals since its introduction in 1992 - China (8), Indonesia (5) and Korea (5) and Denmark (1).

Susi Susanti from Indonesia won the women’s singles in Barcelona, becoming Indonesia’s first medallist in the 40 years Indonesia had competed at the Games. In the same Olympic Games, Alan Budi Kusama won Indonesia’s second gold medal in the men’s badminton singles.

Source : internationalbadminton.org

The best way to choose Camping Equipments


Are you planning a great outdoor adventure? You are maybe tired of doing the same old picnic in your backyard or spending all your time driving on a vacation trip. You do not have to tire yourself.

You can spend the vacation without worrying too much on your expenses. Why don’t you try spending your vacation by camping? What is an outdoor camping?

Outdoor camping is one of the best ways to spend your holiday. Mostly, it is done far from home. Nevertheless, some families do it in the backyard. In your camping, you may need to find the best equipments to facilitate a better and worth the while outdoor camping. Why do you need these equipments?

These camping equipments allow the campers to spend the night or more outside the house. As what is stated before, you can sometimes spend your camping activities in the backyard. You need many things and do not forget that there are equipments essential for you to enjoy and have fun in your camping activities.

This will make it possible for you and your children to spend quality time away from home on a completely new different environment. This activity is not worth only for enjoyment but I also educational. Your children will learn much about the nature and about themselves.

If you are going to select camping equipments, you have to make sure that you check the equipments carefully. The equipment that you should purchase must be made with quality.

If the equipment that you will purchase promises to be waterproof, make sure that you will be safe from the rain when you use it.

Aside from that, make sure you are protected upon using it. Moreover, it can be use repeatedly but still functions well.

There are heaps of camping equipments needed in your camping activities. One of the most important camping equipments is the tent, where you and your family will spend the whole duration of camping. Tent serves as the temporary shelter for you and your family.

This is where you will sleep, eat, change clothing, cooking utensils and keep all the things that must be protected from dirt and rain. Sometimes, these materials are carried through backpack and coolers. This is why tents are essential to be waterproof.

You must be conscious about the quality of the equipments purchased. You must be aware that most of the time, these equipments will be carried in long distances therefore it should be made with quality and protected for damages.

The equipments you will be purchasing must be free from tears and resistant to damages cause by pressure and abuses. It should also be lightweight so you will not be suffering from carrying it anywhere, specially in long distances.

Many types of equipment are used for camping each with different types and different uses. It can be expensive but these equipments are all you need to continue going on with your camping activities.

Without it, you will not enjoy and have fun on your camping vacation. Your first camping trip may only be in the backyard but it will be fun and exciting as long as you purchased the products and equipments needed for this kind of outdoor activity.

Source : artofcamping.com

About Wushu


Wushu has over time become a formal branch of study in the performancing arts by the Chinese. It is the most popular national sport in the country of China, and is practised by people of all ages. Modern wushu has shifted it's emphasis from combat to performance, and it is practiced for its method of achieving heath, self-defense skills, mental discipline, recreational pursuit and competition. Wushu is characterized by it dynamic and fluid motions along with its arial kicks, rolling techniques and weapons.

Wushu is the Chinese word for all the styles of Chinese Martial Arts. These arts can be Tai Chi, Shaolin Boxing, Wing Chun, and many other martial styles.

The main styles of Wushu are:

Barehands: Changquan (Long fist), Nanquan (Southern Fist), Taijiquan (Taiji Quan)
Short Weapons:

*Dao (single-edged sword)
*Jian (double-edged sword)
*Taijijian (Taiji double-edged sword)
*Nandao (Southern single-edged sword)


Long Weapons:

*Gun (Staff)
*Qiang (Spear)
*Nangun (Southern Staff)

When you look at the Chinese characters for wushu, it is actually two characters or words, Wu meaning 'martial' and Shu meaning 'art'. Upon further examination of the Chinese character for Wu, it too is two characters, Zhi meaning ' do not do' and Ge meaning 'Fight'. Thus the characters translate to 'Do not Fight'.Therefore, the word Wushu really means the 'Art of not fighting'.

Source : Wushu.com

Monday, December 7, 2009

About Ninjutsu


Ninjutsu, which literally means the art of perseverance, is a martial art system that focuses on unconventional warfare, strategy, and tactics. While the majority of ninjutsu ryuha (families) became organized during the Warring States (Sengoku Jidai) period of feudal Japan history, use of ninja spies dates back to roughly 560AD. During feudal Japan, ninja operatives were routinely used by many of the powerful warlords, while other ninjutsu families used their intelligence gathering skills to keep from falling victim to the land disputes and conquering armies trampling throughout much of the country.

Ninja operatives were routinely trained in a curriculum defined by eighteen skillsets:

1. Seishin-teki kyōkō (spiritual ref)
2. Bōjutsu (stick and staff fighting)
3. Shurikenjutsu (throwing shuriken)
4. Sōjutsu (spear fighting)
5. Naginatajutsu (naginata fighting)
6. Kusarigamajutsu (kusarigama fighting)
7. Kayakujutsu (pyrotechnics and explosives)
8. Hensōjutsu (disguise and impersonation)
9. Shinobi-iri (stealth and entering methods)
10. Bajutsu (horsemanship)
11. Sui-ren (water training)
12. Bōryaku (tactics)
13. Chōhō (espionage)
14. Intonjutsu (escaping and concealment)
15. Tenmon (meteorology)
16. Chi-mon (geography)
17. Taijutsu (Unarmed Combat)
18. Kenjutsu (sword fighting)

Ninja, rather than the cut-throat mindless assassins that poorly-researched movies purport, were far more similar to spies and special operations commandos that we see today. Highly-trained - physically, mentally, and spiritually - ninja were a tremendous asset and a fascinating evolution within the strict cultural confines of Japanese history.

Source :jonfmerz.net

Parkour History


A Parkour History | Who Invented Parkour? - Drew Taylor 26/09/09

Crediting one person with the invention of Parkour is difficult to do. Firstly parkour has been around as long as humans have, natural efficient movement will have been used in prehistory when chasing or escaping.

Modern Parkour developed from Georges Hébert’s ‘Natural Method’. This was a way of improving physical efficiency by using different methods of movement to complete obstacle courses. The methods of movements included walking, running, jumping, quadrupedal movement, climbing, balancing, lifting, fighting and swimming. This method of training was used to prepare Hébert’s students for what he called the “Moral Requirements” of life in the most holistic way possible. In the same way, he believed, focussing on competition didn’t enable physical education to develop mentality and moral values.

David Belle who is widely regarded as the founder of Parkour was introduced to the Natural Method by his grandfather who had seen the method practised by French soldiers. Belle, along with friends Sebastein Foucan, Yann Hnautra and Laurent Piemontesi first practised what is now known as parkour in the late nineteen-eighties. Belle introduced the practising of the natural method in urban environments to a small community of practitioners who called themselves Yamakasi. This comes from the language of Congo, meaning strong spirit, strong body, and endurance.

Many people who starting practising Parkour after the Yamakasi, are now regarded as the best in the world. Names like Daniel Illabaca, Chase Armitage, and Tim Shief are all better known than some members of the Yamakasi. Although these guys aren’t credited with the creation of urban natural method training they are extremely talented practitioners and all are individually creative with their movements.

Source : parkour-online.com

Ski Bike


This will show you one way to build yourself a Ski Bike (aka Snow Bike, Skibob, Skike, or Skicycle). It is a downhill only machine and if you like bikes a lot, then it will probably keep a stupid grin plastered on your face all the way down whatever crazy hills you choose to take it on. It is easier to ride than it looks and is quite stable at high speeds (not sure about the speeds you could achieve at a ski hill, but its worked great for average hills in Wisconsin).
There are many ways you could build one of these, this is just one way to get you started.
step 1 Get a bike
Find yourself a bike that you think would be suitable. I like to keep it small so that its easier to kick with your legs or do a running start and hop on. Smaller is also g…

step 2 Remove the chainwheel
You don't need or want a chainwheel on a ski bike. I don't know if you've ever been damaged by a chainrwheel in a bike crash, but its not fun. This bike has a one piece cra…

step 3 Prepare skis
Pay a visit to your local thrift store and get yourself a cheap pair of old skis. I paid $2 for this pair of Heads. Decide how long you'd like your skis to be. I've found …

step 4Attach axles to bike
For my design, I decided to use 3/8-16 threaded rod for the axles due to cheapness and abundance of compatible hardware. Buy a ton of matching nuts and washers at Fleet Far…

step 5 Cut wood for ski mounts
Get yourself some wood that will fit between the dropouts of your bike (especially the front, which is generally narrower spacing) and be able to rotate freely without catc…

step 6 Attach blocks to ski
Now its time to screw the blocks onto the skis. First, you'll want to decide how far back you want your blocks. With 24" skis, I decided to put the blocks 6.25" from the ba…

step 7 Attach axle clamp block
Now you've got to attach the top block that will clamp the axle in place. This design is a little bit strange, but I decided to go with it because it allows fore/aft adjust…

step 8 Finished ski bike!
You're done! Go test ride it if you've got any snow. Make adjustments to the seat and handlebars until it feels right.To all who may be skeptical of the ski attachment syst…

step 9 Extra Mods
I finally got around to doing some other stuff to this bike. I was able to find and fit a 26" fork to this bike in order to reduce its tendency to double up and launch you…

Source : instructables.com

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

History of Football




The contemporary history of the world's favourite game spans more than 100 years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and association football branched off on their different courses and the Football Association in England was formed - becoming the sport's first governing body.

Both codes stemmed from a common root and both have a long and intricately branched ancestral tree. A search down the centuries reveals at least half a dozen different games, varying to different degrees, and to which the historical development of football has been traced back. Whether this can be justified in some instances is disputable. Nevertheless, the fact remains that people have enjoyed kicking a ball about for thousands of years and there is absolutely no reason to consider it an aberration of the more 'natural' form of playing a ball with the hands.

On the contrary, apart from the need to employ the legs and feet in tough tussles for the ball, often without any laws for protection, it was recognised right at the outset that the art of controlling the ball with the feet was not easy and, as such, required no small measure of skill. The very earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in China.

This Han Dynasty forebear of football was called Tsu' Chu and it consisted of kicking a leather ball filled with feathers and hair through an opening, measuring only 30-40cm in width, into a small net fixed onto long bamboo canes. According to one variation of this exercise, the player was not permitted to aim at his target unimpeded, but had to use his feet, chest, back and shoulders while trying to withstand the attacks of his opponents. Use of the hands was not permitted.

Another form of the game, also originating from the Far East, was the Japanese Kemari, which began some 500-600 years later and is still played today. This is a sport lacking the competitive element of Tsu' Chu with no struggle for possession involved. Standing in a circle, the players had to pass the ball to each other, in a relatively small space, trying not to let it touch the ground.

The Greek 'Episkyros' - of which few concrete details survive - was much livelier, as was the Roman 'Harpastum'. The latter was played out with a smaller ball by two teams on a rectangular field marked by boundary lines and a centre line. The objective was to get the ball over the opposition's boundary lines and as players passed it between themselves, trickery was the order of the day. The game remained popular for 700-800 years, but, although the Romans took it to Britain with them, the use of feet was so small as to scarcely be of consequence.

Source : FIFA.COM

About Kungfu Martial Arts


Kung Fu is a broad term that is used to describe all martial arts of Chinese origin. Kung-Fu existing under many different names throught China’s history. Initially Kung Fu was called Ch’uan Fa (fist way).

The Shaolin monastery housed many fugitives from justice, and many warriors turned monk, which sets the roots of Kung Fu in the Shaolin Temple in Northern China. In fact there were five different Shaolin temples in five districts, and so five distinct styles of Shaolin Kung Fu developed.

Martial arts historians stress that Kung-Fu did not start at the Shaolin temple, but simply began to flourish under Shaolin’s influence. Kung-Fu became eventually categorised into Northern and Southern styles. In the south, Cantonese people pronounce Kung Fu as gung-fu. Southern styles use low stances and kicks and strong hand techniques because they are shorter and stockier than Northern (Mandarin) people. The Northern systems are characterised by stylish and difficult patterns and acrobatic legwork, presumably because it was colder in the North so hand movement was restricted by thick robes and the mountaineous terrain enforced the development of strong legs.

Kung Fu as one of the oldest martial arts has been a great influence to other and younger martial arts styles, such as Okinawan Karate styles and subsequently Japanese Karate styles.

In modern times, Wu-shu emerged as a mixture of circus-like acrobatics and martial arts, and in China, national competitions are held in this sport. Jet-Li is a famous exponent of Wu-Shu, popularising the art in the West by appearing in martial arts movies.

Typical Kung Fu weapons are the broadsword and the butterfly knives.

Origin of Kung Fu: China

Source : martial-arts-info.com

History of Aikido Martial Arts


Aikido is considered to be a non-aggressive style, as the Aikido student does not instigate the attack. The basic principle of Aikido is “Do not fight force with force”. Aikido uses very few punches and kicks. Instead, the attackers force is redirected into throws, locks and restraining techniques. Size, weight, age and physical strength differences of the opponents play only a small role, as the skilled Aikido practitioner is able to redirect the attackers energy, keeping his attacker in a constant of unbalance.

AikidoTo be effective, Aikido takes longer to learn than most other martial arts. Aikido can be practiced to a late age because this martial art does not rely on flexibility, muscle speed, or strength. Thus it has become especially popular with women and senior citizens.

Aikido training teaches the use of several martial arts weapons such as Tento, Jo and Bokken. There is also a sport style of Aikido named Tomiki Aikdo.

Origin of Aikido: Japan

Founder of Aikido: Morihei Ueshiba 1883-1969

Popularised by: Movie star Steven Seagal, the first Western person to open an Aikido school in Japan.

Source: martial-arts-info.com

Martial Arts "Karate"


Master Gichin Funakoshi




Meaning “Empty hand” in Japanese, Karate is one of the more popular martial arts. Originated centuries ago from the island of Okinawa, it did not catch on in mainland Japan until the early 1900s, when Master Gichin Funakoshi simplified the self-defense techniques and added a philosophical aspect to the art. There are many different styles within Karate, but they are all characterized with the same hard blocks, punches, and kicks. Today, it is practised and studied in countries all over the world.

Source : Wikipedia

Friday, November 13, 2009

TRICKS TO RIDE DOWN HILL IN THE SNOW


Professional Tweaks, Tips & Reviews By "AJ" Picarello
I hope you find my Tweaks and Tips section helpful. If there is something you want to know about, send me an email and I will try to add that to one of my upcoming articles.

Check out the conditions. If you're riding in only deep powder, you probably won't need studs (as long as the slope is very steep). Use a narrow tire. It will cut through the powder and hopefully hook up on the rocks or dirt. Try using a softer compound, especially on rock.

If the conditions are icy, you probably need studs. Some people drill 2.1" mud tires and insert sheet metal studs from the inside of the tire. They can protrude up to ¾"- 1" out of the tire. This is an extreme way to gain traction for winter riding. You can easily install over 200 screws in one tire. You'll have to line the inside of the tire with a Mr. Tuffy. This is a product that prevents the head of the screw from cutting the tube. I also install heavy-duty tubes. Be careful riding with these tires. If you slip off your pedals while riding and land on the back tire, you could possibly lose more than just blood. This winter I tried this method on my front tire only. I felt more confident and didn't notice any lack of control.

You can also purchase motorcycle ice racing studs. They come in different lengths and are inserted into the knobby from the outside. They may not be as sharp as a sheet metal screw, but still work in icy conditions. Use the Mr. Tuffy. You can still get a flat tire without one. You can also get mangled if you slip off the pedals and land on the rear tire. This is the method Professionals used at last years X Games.

Try using a rear fender. Mud Machine makes a rear fender that bolts to your bikes brake bosses. Mud Machine sells a mounting kit for bikes that don't have brake bosses. It's a very durable fender that can save your sex life.

Lengthen your bike wheel base and relax your head angle if possible. Snow riding is much harder than riding on dirt. The snow will try and launch you over your bars. You have to lean way back behind the seat. Be ready for anything. One second the bike is going perfectly straight the next it's fishtailing down vertical terrain. You'll have to use major body english to compensate for unpredictable obstacles.

Water proof socks and platform pedals are a must. Goggles are also a good idea since the cold will make your eyes water. Bring drinking water. You will probably sweat more riding in the snow than riding in the summer. Pushing a downhill bike through the snow and up a mountain is a chore. Check every section before you drop in. Check for sheets of ice. Use a rock to smash the ice if necessary. Stomp down that hard layer of snow that sometimes forms on top of powder. If you're lucky, try riding on top of that hard layer.

You will never take riding in the dry for granted again. After this winter I'll be happy riding in the rain. With some minor preparation, downhilling in the winter is 100% doable. It will make you a better rider come spring. Sometimes the conditions are better than the dry. You can hammer through packed powder with some ice and exposed rock. The snow will actually fill in gaps between rocks, smoothing out the ride.

Source : downcycles.com

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